Tuesday, May 26, 2020

Definitions and Examples of English Sentence Structures

In English grammar,  sentence structure is the arrangement of words, phrases, and clauses in a sentence. The grammatical function or meaning of a sentence is dependent on this structural organization, which is also called syntax or syntactic structure. In traditional grammar, the four basic types of sentence structures are the simple sentence, the compound sentence, the complex sentence, and the compound-complex sentence. The most common word order in English sentences is Subject-Verb-Object (SVO). When reading a sentence, we generally expect the first noun to be the subject and the second noun to be the object. This expectation (which isnt always fulfilled) is known in linguistics as the canonical sentence strategy. Examples and Observations One of the first lessons learned by the student of language or linguistics is that there is more to language than a simple vocabulary list. To learn a language, we must also learn its principles of sentence structure, and a linguist who is studying a language will generally be more interested in the structural principles than in the vocabulary per se.—Margaret J. Speas Sentence structure may ultimately be composed of many parts, but remember that the foundation of each sentence is the subject and the predicate. The subject is a word or a group of words that functions as a noun; the predicate is at least a verb and possibly includes objects and modifiers of the verb.—Lara Robbins Meaning and Sentence Structure People are probably not as aware of sentence structure as they are of sounds and words, because sentence structure is abstract in a way that sounds and words are not . . . At the same time, sentence structure is a central aspect of every sentence . . . We can appreciate the importance of sentence structure by looking at examples within a single language. For instance, in English, the same set of words can convey different meanings if they are arranged in different ways. Consider the following: The senators objected to the plans proposed by the generals.The senators proposed the plans objected to by the generals. The meaning of [first] the sentence is quite different from that of [the second], even though the only difference is the position of the words objected to and proposed. Although both sentences contain exactly the same words, the words are structurally related to each other differently; it is those differences in structure that account for the difference in meaning.—Eva M. Fernà ¡ndez and Helen Smith Cairns Information Structure: The Given-Before-New Principle It has been known since the Prague School of Linguistics that sentences can be divided into a part that anchors them in the preceding discourse (old information) and a part that conveys new information to the listener. This communicative principle may be put to good use in the analysis of sentence structure by taking the boundary between old and new information as a clue to identifying a syntactic boundary. In fact, a typical SVO sentence such as Sue has a boyfriend can be broken down into the subject, which codes the given information, and the remainder of the sentence, which provides the new information. The old-new distinction thus serves to identify the VP [verb phrase] constituent in SVO sentences.—Thomas Berg Producing and Interpreting Sentence Structures in Speech The grammatical structure of a sentence is a route followed with a purpose, a phonetic goal for a speaker, and a semantic goal for a hearer. Humans have a unique capacity to go very rapidly through the complex hierarchically organized processes involved in speech production and perception. When syntacticians draw structure on sentences they are adopting a convenient and appropriate shorthand for these processes. A linguists account of the structure of a sentence is an abstract summary of a series of overlapping snapshots of what is common to the processes of producing and interpreting the sentence.—James R. Hurford The Most Important Thing to Know About Sentence Structure Linguists investigate sentence structure by inventing sentences, making small changes to them, and watching what happens. This means that the study of language belongs to the scientific tradition of using experiments to understand some part of our world. For example, if we make up a sentence (1) and then make a small change to it to get (2), we find that the second sentence is ungrammatical. (1) I saw the white  house. (Grammatically correct) (2) I saw the house white.  (Grammatically incorrect) Why? One possibility is that it relates to the words themselves; perhaps the word white and the word house must always come in this order. But if we were to explain in this way we would need separate explanations for a very large number of words, including the words in the sentences (3)-(6), which show the same pattern. (3) He read the new book.  (Grammatically correct) (4) He read the book new. (Grammatically incorrect) (5) We fed some hungry dogs. (Grammatically correct) (6) We fed some dogs hungry.  (Grammatically incorrect) These sentences show us that whatever principle gives us the order of words, it must be based on the class of word, not on a specific word. The words white, new, and hungry are all a class of word called an adjective; the words house, book, and dogs are all a class of word called a noun. We could formulate a generalization, which holds true for the sentences in (1)-(6): (7) An adjective cannot immediately follow a noun. A generalization [as with sentence 7] is an attempt to explain the principles by which a sentence is put together. One of the useful consequences of a generalization is to make a prediction which can then be tested, and if this prediction turns out to be wrong, then the generalization can be improved . . . The generalization in (7) makes a prediction which turns out to be wrong when we look at sentence (8). (8) I painted the house white.  (Grammatically correct) Why is (8) grammatical while (2) is not, given that both end on the same sequence of house white? The answer is the most important thing to know about sentence structure:  The grammaticality of a sentence depends not on the sequence of words but how the words are combined into phrases.—Nigel Fabb Sources Speas, Margaret J. Phrase Structure in Natural Language. Kluwer, 1990Robbins, Lara. Grammar and Style at Your Fingertips. Alpha Books, 2007Fernà ¡ndez, Eva M. and Cairns, Helen Smith. Fundamentals of Psycholinguistics. Wiley-Blackwell, 2011Berg, Thomas.  Structure in Language: A Dynamic Perspective. Routledge, 2009Hurford, James R. The Origins of Grammar: Language in the Light of Evolution II. Oxford University Press, 2011Fabb, Nigel. Sentence Structure, Second Edition. Routledge, 2005

Friday, May 15, 2020

Follow This Word Order for the Best French Sentences

The order of words in a French sentence can be confusing, especially if you have, as we do, dual-verb constructions, object and adverbial pronouns, and negative structures. Here, were going to take a look at all of these and suggest the best positioning of words so that you dont end up with French sentences that make no sense. Dual-Verb Constructions Dual-verb constructions consist of a conjugated  semi-auxiliary verb, such as  pouvoir and  devoir  (called  modal verbs  in English),  vouloir,  aller,  espà ©rer, and  promettre, followed by a second verb in the infinitive. The two verbs may or may not be joined by a preposition.   Dual-verb constructions have a slightly different word order than compound verbs tenses. Word order is important because, if you get it wrong, the sentence will read like nonsense in French. Object and Reflexive Pronouns Object and reflexive pronouns are usually  placed between the two verbs and after the preposition(if any) that follows the conjugated verb. Adverbial pronouns are always placed in this position. Je dois me les brosser.   I need to brush them.Je vais te le donner. Im going to give it to you. Nous espà ©rons y aller. We hope to go there. Je promets de le manger. I promise to eat it.Il continuera à   ten parler.   Hell continue to talk to you about it. Sometimes the object pronoun should precede the first verb. In order to determine this, think about which verb is being modified. Why? Because in French, the object pronoun must go in front of the verb it modifies.  The wrong place may give you a grammatically incorrect sentence or may even change the meaning of the sentence. Consider the examples in this chart. Correct Pronoun Placement X Il aide nous travailler. X Hes helping work us. Il nous aide travailler. Hes helping us work. X Elle invite me venir. X Shes inviting to come me. Elle minvite venir. Shes inviting me to come. X Je promets de te manger. X I promise to eat you. Je te promets de manger. I promise you that Ill eat. Je promets de le manger. I promise that Ill eat it. Je te promets de le manger. I promise you that Ill eat it. Negative Constructions Negative structures surround the conjugated verb and precede the preposition (if any). Correct Negative Structure Placement Je ne vais pas tudier. Im not going to study. Nous nesprons jamais voyager. We never hope to travel. Je ne promets que de travailler. I only promise to work. Il ne continue pas lire. Hes not continuing to read. Pronouns Plus Negative Construction In a sentence with both pronouns and a negative structure, the order is: ne   object pronoun (if applicable) conjugated verb part two of negative structure preposition (if any) object pronoun(s) adverbial pronoun(s) infinitive Correct Placement of Pronouns and Negative Structures Je ne vais jamais te le donner. Im never going to give it to you. Nous nesprons pas y aller. We dont hope to go there. Il ne continue pas y travailler. He isnt continuing to work there. Je ne promets pas de le manger. I dont promise to eat it. Je ne te promets pas de le manger. I dont promise you that Ill eat it. Je ne te promets pas dy aller. I dont promise you that Ill go there.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Holocaust in Germany - 1341 Words

â€Å"Never shall I forget that night, the first night in camp, which has turned my life into one long night, seven times cursed and seven times sealed....Never shall I forget those moments which murdered my God and my soul and turned my dreams to dust. Never shall I forget these things, even if I am condemned to live as long as God Himself. Never.† This quotation, taken from Elie Wiesel’s Night, sums up the unspeakable horrors of the Holocaust and the terrible experiences of those who lived through it. The word ‘Holocaust’ is derived from the Greek word â€Å"Holcauston.† The word â€Å"holo† meaning â€Å"whole† and â€Å"causton† meaning â€Å"burned.† It was often used when referring to an animal sacrifice on an altar. Now, however, the word is looked at with a new perspective: the massive slaughter of six million Jews under Germany’s Third Reich regime. The Holocaust has become one of the most well known and studied genocides that the world has experienced. It is hard to fathom the number of lives lost in the years between 1938 and 1945. Six million men, women, and children gassed, burned, shot, and hung under the command of Nazi leader Adolf Hitler. The Nazis believed these violent acts were acceptable due to their strong belief that Jews ruined the German nation. In added attempt to perfect the ideal Germany, the Nazis exterminated cripples, Gypsies, the old, and the sick. However, this mass extinguishment of human lives did not happen overnight. It was a slow and precise process that HitlerShow MoreRelatedThe Holocaust and Nazi Germany1477 Words   |  6 PagesIntroduction (150 words) As a result of the Holocaust, a clear link can be made between Nazi racial ideologies and Hitler’s foreign policy. Firstly, Nazi ideologies were a fundamental facet to the Holocaust, as it included the philosophies of who constituted as a Jew, and the consequent treatment of those diagnosed as Jews. Secondly, Hitler’s foreign policies were another significant aspect of the holocaust, as it was a fundamental part in the construction of Hitler’s ultimate goal. Thirdly, theRead MoreThe Holocaust and Nazi Germany Essay1100 Words   |  5 PagesThe Holocaust is most well-known for the organized and inhumane extermination of more than six million Jews. The death total of the Jews is this most staggering; however, other groups such as Gypsies, Poles, Russians, political groups, Jehovah’s witnesses, and homosexuals were targeted as well (Holocaust Encyclopedia: Introduction to the Holocaust). The initial idea of persecuting select groups of people began with Ad olf Hitler’s rise to power in Germany. In January 1930, Hitler became the ChancellorRead MoreHeinrich Himmlers Role In Nazi Germany And The Holocaust1258 Words   |  6 Pagesthat were a part of Nazi Germany and the Holocaust, Heinrich Himmler should be the first person that comes to mind. Heinrich Himmler was one of the leading members of the German National Socialist party, or widely known as the German Nazis. Himmler was the leader of many operations during his time in Nazi Germany, with the Final Solution during the Holocaust being his most well known. Three reasons why people should learn about Heinrich Himmler when talking about the Holocaust is his role in the FinalRead MoreGermany s War And The Holocaust : Disputed Histories1807 Words   |  8 PagesJulia Katzman December 4, 2014 History of War Professor Nolan Book Review #2 Evaluating History Bartov, Omer. Germany s War and the Holocaust: Disputed Histories. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2003. Kindle. For decades, historians and citizens have struggled to grasp the relationship between the German army and the mass murders committed during the Holocaust. These questions have persisted since the concentration camps were liberated and the extent of the atrocities committed duringRead MoreGermany s Postwar Silence : The Horrible Atrocities Of The Holocaust1604 Words   |  7 Pages Germany’s Postwar Silence The horrible atrocities of the Holocaust remain an important subject in World history. Although very few people are alive from the Nazi era the horrors of the era still haunt Germany. Should the generations of German people be held collectively responsible for the Nazi crimes? If you were born in 1940 the start of the war, you would be 75 years old today. The younger generation of German’s look at that period of history differently than those alive post war. How theRead MoreThe Holocausts Effect on the German Jew Essay1745 Words   |  7 Pages Adolf Hitler came to power over Germany in January of 1933. He hated Jews and blamed them for everything bad that had ever happened to Germany. Hitler’s goal in life was to eliminate the Jewish population. With his rise to power in Germany, he would put into action his plan of elimination. This is not only why German Jews were the main target of the Holocaust, but why they were a large part of the years before, during, a nd after the Holocaust. Hitler’s â€Å"final solution† almost eliminated theRead MoreThe Mass Murder Of A Totalitarian Leader1112 Words   |  5 Pages In the 1930’s, Germany was under the control of a totalitarian leader, known as Adolf Hitler; Hitler created a cult of personality, using censorship of the press and famous intellectuals of the time, propaganda, and violence to encourage discrimination against Jewish individuals. Discrimination against Jewish individuals was also known as anti-Semitism; hostility and prejudice towards the Jewish race; anti-Semitism can take many different forms, including: Institutional, verbal, or physicalRead MoreThe Holocaust : The Causes Of The Holocaust804 Words   |  4 Pagesthere was a thing called the holocaust. There were many concentration camps all over Germany where many Jews were killed in different ways. It happened between WW1 and WW2, 1933-1945. My position on why this happened is that Germany was going through a rough time, so Hitler wanted their country to resemble power. Read on to learn more about the causes and ways the Holocaust could have been avoided. The Holocaust was a mass slaying of groups of people which that Germany saw as inferior. This includedRead MoreThe Tragedy Of The Holocaust1599 Words   |  7 PagesHorror struck on January 30, 1933 when Germany assigned Adolf Hitler as their chancellor. Once Hitler had finally reached power he set out to complete one goal, create a Greater Germany free from the Jews (â€Å"The reasons for the Holocaust,† 2009). This tragedy is known today as, â€Å"The Holocaust,† that explains the terrors of our histories past. The face of the Holocaust, master of death, and leader of Germany; Adolf Hitler the most deceitful, powerful, well spoken, and intelligent person that actedRead MoreThe Nazi Observatory 1093 Words   |  5 Pages From the second Adolf Hitler become chancellor Germany become a darker place. Germany was humiliated after WWI and Hitler wanted the world to see that Germany isn’t weak and they weren’t to blame for their troubles. Hitler blamed the J ews and those who didn’t fit his â€Å"elite race†. He started a genocide and when the world reacted all they could do was save as many lives as they could for so many had already been lost. The nations of the world could have done so much more to prevent the genocide

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Ronald Emmerichs The Patriot Essay Example For Students

Ronald Emmerichs The Patriot Essay The Patriot, directed by Roland Emmerich, starring Mel Gibson and Heath Ledger, came out in 2000. This film displayed a historically accurate colonial America during the American Revolution. I chose to watch this film because I have been always interested in war and since the American Revolution was the birth of our nation, I chose to learn more about colonial life by watching The Patriot. The American Revolution (1754- 1781) was the conflict between the colonists in the 13th colonies with their mother country England. This conflict was started from parliament passing a series of taxations on the colonists to pay for the 7 Years War against the French and Native Americans. The war was brutal for the colonists since most of them are just farmers with no experience on military combat. However, some British generals and soldiers who fought in the 7 Years War, helped train the colonists and help them win the war. With the series of raids on the British and the help from the French, allowed them to defeat the British and ear their independence as a new nation. The film, I believe, is a magnificent display of the type of life the colonists had since a farmer, Mel Gibson, dealt with his eldest son in the war and his other son being killed by a British officer. After the death of his son, his house was burned, since he was housing patriots who were wounded. Because of the acts from the soldiers, his rage killed several British troops using his skills from fighting in the 7 Years War. He later leads the colonial militia into many victories against the British using military tactics the British considered cowardly since they hid and shot from the woods behind cover. With the type of cloths and lifestyles expressed in the film gave me the conclusion that productions for the movie did an excellent job making the movie historically accurate even though Hollywood altered the storyline to have a romance and humor to make the movie enjoyable, but didnt alter the historical background of the film. The death of many of the characters in the movie gave me a sense of how devastating the war was and the fact that even though it was in the past, people shall never forget the patriots and how they fought for their beliefs of freedom expressed in the movie. The way the movie showed a simple farmer become a general for the militia was a way to show that the patriots consisted of just mere farmers that were not trained or prepared for battle, but were still able to defeat the force of one of the greatest empires history has seen. The movie may have had historical accuracy be the use of military tactics used by the Patriots or how ex-generals from the British helped the colonists, but Hollywood added a romantic storyline with Heath Ledger and a woman he met traveling from town to town to gain support against the British military. The humor in the movie was from the conversations of the patriots at camps even though they had little food and supplies much like the historical American Revolution since some of the Patriots sadly died from disease and starvation from the limited resources the colonies had for the soldiers. I learned much about the culture not taught from a textbook be the way the colonists were divided from loyalists and patriots and how the British didnt show mercy to those who were against them. I also learned many of the tactics that allowed the Americans to win many battles and eventually win the war. Over all, I believe The Patriot was an excellent film that was historically accurate and a joy to watch.

Monday, April 13, 2020

Ghandi Essays - Gandhism, Nonviolence, Ascetics, Gujarati People

Ghandi Mahatma Gandhi Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was born in Porbandar, India, on October 2, 1869. Although his father was a chief minister for the maharaja of Porbandar, the family came from the traditional caste of grocers (the name Gandhi means grocer). His mother's religion was Jainism, a Hindu religion which ideas of nonviolence and vegetarianism are very important. Gandhi said that he was most influenced by his mother, whose life was an endless chain of fasts and vows. When, in the company of boyhood friends, he secretly smoked, ate meat, told lies, or wore Western clothing, he had an intense feeling of guilt. These feelings forced him to make resolutions about his moral behaviour that were to stay with him for the rest of his life. Ghandi married at the age of 13. When he was 18, he went to London to study law. He was admitted to the bar in 1891 and for a while he was attorney in Bombay. From 1893 to 1914 he worked for an Indian firm in South Africa. During these years Gandhi's humiliating experiences of open, official racial discrimination and aphartheid propelled him into agitation on behalf of the Indian community of South Africa. He started protest campaigns and organized provocating demonstrations, but never used violence. His philosophy was to never fight back against the atrocities, but still never retreat. This, he said, would decrease the hate against him and his fellow believers, and increase the respect felt towards him. Gandhi's one aim was that everybody - hindues, muslims, sikhs, jews, christians, black and white - could live together in peace and harmony. Under the banner We are citizens of the empire he gathered Indians from all over South Africa to a march for freedom. He gradually developed his techniques and tenets of nonviolent resistance, and when he returned to India in January 1915, he was celebrated as a national hero. He was soon asked to participate in and organize India's fight for freedom, as he fought aphatheid in South Africa. Then he started his journey to discover the real India, the life in the 700.000 small villages and the countryside with all the hardworking men and women. These were the ones he was going to represent in his fight for justice. As time passed, more and more people got to know about Gandhi and his controversial views, and Gandhi's popularity grew incredibly fast, something the English Vice-king and government didn't approve of at all. Armed only with honesty and a bamboo stick, Gandhi got through demands like a rebait on rent pay to the English land-owners, freedom for the Indians to grow crops of their own choice and the establishment of a part- Indian commission to hear grievances from the Indians. The Englishmen allowed these demands without questions, just to see the back of him. But Gandhi had greater aims. They sent Gandhi to jail several times, but they always had to release him, because he never used or indirectly caused violence or crime. He convinced almost everyone that nonviolence increases respect and decreases hate, but terror-actions and violence justifies the atrocities. Now, the Englishmen were getting afraid of this little, big man. And fright made them dangerous. In the town of Amritsar in 1919, English soliders, armed with guns, attacked and shot to kill hundreds of nationalist demonstrators, demonstrators who's goal was, ironically enough, nonviolence. 1516 demonstrators were killed or wounded. The general said that he wanted to give the Indians a lesson that would have an impact throughout all of India. The English people and government reputiated this terrible action and the attitude that prompted it. The massacre of Amritsar turned Gandhi to direct political protest, and made it possible for him to propose that maybe it was time for the Englishmen to go home for good. Within a year he was the dominant figure in the Indian National Congress, where Gandhi challenged the Brits: 100.000 Englishmen cannot control 350 million Indians if these Indians won't cooperate. That was what Gandhi wanted to achieve when he launched on a policy of noncooperation with the British. Nonviolence and noncooperation would make India independent of the British Empire, and the Indians would see the Englishmen off as friends. The first action of this noncooperation policy was to make the indians realize that to buy

Wednesday, March 11, 2020

Harriet Tubman Essays - Slavery In The United States, Harriet Tubman

Harriet Tubman Essays - Slavery In The United States, Harriet Tubman Harriet Tubman HARRIET TUBMAN Harriet Tubman was an escaped slave. She helped so many of her black people that she became known as Moses of Her People. During the civil war she served the union army as a nurse, spy, cook, and scout. She was also conductor on the Underground Railroad. She was a very heroic woman. Harriet Tubman was born on plantation near Bucktown about 1820. She was one of eleven children of a slave couple. At seven years old she was hired out to do housework and care for white children on nearby farms. Later she became a field hand. When she was a teenager she was struck on the head. As a result of the blow, she fell asleep a few times a day for the rest of her life. Hard work toughened her, and before she was 19 she was as strong as the men she worked with were. In Philadelphia, Pa, and later in Cape May, NJ, Harriet Tubman worked as a maid in hotels and clubs. By December 1850 she had saved up enough money to make the first of her nineteen daring journeys back into the south. She went back the lead other slaves out of bondage. In 1851 she returned for her husband to find that he had remarried. Bibliography Harriet Tubman: Comptons Encyclopedia (http://comptonsv3.web.aol.com) (2000) Harriet Tubman: Hutchinson Encyclopedia (http://ukab.web.aol.com) (2000) Harriet Tubman: Encarta Online Concise (encarta.msn.com) (2000)

Monday, February 24, 2020

Final project Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words - 5

Final project - Essay Example Aggregated demand curve represents the overall quantity of goods that are demanded at different price level. Second model that has been employed is IS-LM Model, and the third model is Keynesian model The concept of aggregate demand is that increase in total demand of products cause to increase the output that lead to the increased demand of labor. If the aggregate demand is lower it will cause to decrease the output and lead to decreased demand of labor (Anderton, 590). As in the case of United Kingdom economy is facing decrease in aggregate demand due to the financial crisis because this crisis made a significant impact over the purchasing power of people. People who have money are saving rather spending their money. This decrease in demand is leading country towards decrease output, therefore, towards unemployment; because firms working in the economy do not require workers to produce output. It has been observed that uncertainty shocks cause to slow down the demands. Therefore, economies have to face higher inflation rates. Such as in United Kingdom, the financial crisis showed huge uncertainty in the financial market that slow down the demand of goods market and result occur red in lower economic growth and increased unemployment rate. For example, the 2008 financial shock reduced the purchasing power of households. By using the right of postponing the purchases, households forced the firms to reduce the manufacturing and in result made delays in new hiring and increased firings of employees that contributed in high unemployment rate. The uncertainty increased the unemployment from the year of 2009 to 2013 in United Kingdom and now the effects are slowing down (Leduc & Liu, 1-30). Increase in the lowering demand of labor is high this time as compared to prior shocks of 1981. This is because this time â€Å" the zero lower bound† restrained the monetary policy on the nominal interest rate. As it has been observed that uncertainty shocks reduced the